|Level 1 Interventions|
- Instruction must teach stuents to clearly communicate ideas and knowledge.
- Instruction must focus on a patten or model for each writing task.
- Utilize vocabulary strategy charts: action words, action helpers, describing words, etc.
- Utilize graphic organizers, mnemonic charts, cue cards, etc.
- Teach strategies for revising
- Utilize self-check cards, proofreading checklist, etc.
|Level 2 Interventions|
- Level 1 interventions with additional practice but include conferencing with student.
|Book Resources / Research Based Strategies|
- Powerful Writing Strategies for All Students
- Writing Better
- When They Can't Write
- Strategic Instructional Model (SIMS)
|Qualitative Features of Writing Checklist|
- Story communicates thoughts and ideas
- Story has a logical organizational structure or sequence
- Has effective strategies for organizing information
- Story has sentence-to-sentence and word-to-word relationships
- Uses planning skills
- Observes spelling rules
- Uses appropriate sentence structure
- Uses correct syntax
- Writing is semantically correct
- Uses appropriate vocabulary accurately
- Observes punctuation rules
- Beginning of sentence not capitalized
- Proper noun not capitalized
- Of a word that should not be capitalized
- Illegible Words
- Incomplete Sentence
- Missing or incorrect at end of sentence
- Omission of comma in a list
- Inappropriate punctuation mark in middle of sentence
- Run-on Sentence
- Semantics: Word in sequence semantically incorrect (i.e., I went too the library)
- For example: plase instead of place
- Contraction (i.e., "dont" instead of "don't")
- Hyphenation (i.e., "dauta-in-law")
- Incorrect for context of what's written
- Noun/verb disagreement (i.e., "I never seen...")
- Adjective/adverb incorrect (i.e., "She ran quick")
Writing consists of four steps:
Aspects of writing product to assess:
|Examples of Self-Monitoring Checklists:|
|How to Select Written Language Skills for Intervention:
After counting the number of two correct word sequences which are correct, it may be very obvious in which area the student needs work. But the student may have so many errors and needs that it is difficult to select the most needy skill area to work on first. Need to look at various aspects of each part of speech such as the number, complexity, variability and correctness of forms used for each part of speech. If there are very few adjectives and adverbs, start work with the adjectives. Or one may identify irregular past tense verb forms as an area of need.
Vocabulary used should be complex and mature. There should be few repetitions of particular words and more sophisticated words should be used.
If a student never uses adverbs at all, the student needs to be encouraged and instructed how to add them to the writing.
If the student uses a variety of verbs, but most are incorrect, the student needs to be instructed in the correct formation of the particular verb tenses.
Working on synonyms, antonyms, homographs, categorization, and listing nouns (with attributes for each) improves individual student’s mental access to a greater variety of words and their meaning. This facilitates quicker retrieval or memory of an increased number of words and its accompanying ability to use them.
|Conventions & Proofreading|
|Increasing Writing Fluency Performance.pdf|
|Written Expression Story Prompt Suggestions:|
- everyone lived until age 150
- all food came in the form of a pill
- books were outlawed
- mirrors never existed
- animals could speak human language
- dogs and cats were suddenly smarter than their owners
- everyone had to live underground
- you never needed any sleep
- people grew younger instead of older
- you could relive one day in the past
- everyone looked exactly the same
- the only colors in the world were white and black
- people could become invisible at will
- humans could live on land and under water without special equipment
- photographs came to life as you looked at them
- you could always tell what was going to happen in the next five minutes
- television and movies were suddenly outlawed
- everyone were self-educated
- students could leave school at the age of 12
- you were born and had always lived in a space station
- you could swap places with another person for a week
- there was only one child in every family
- you could get straight A's all the time
- there are no more sports allowed
- that you have been granted a wish
- that you have taken a ride on a magic carpet
- you have a stuffed animal that comes to life
- you are a fruit or vegetable at the grocery store
- you opened your lunch box on the school bus and an animal hopped out
- you had a secret box and brought it to school
- you woke up in the middle of the night and heard your toys talking
- you had an extra pair of legs or arms or eyes
- you had a tail
- My first day at school...
- The day of my biggest accident...
- A special visit to a relative's house...
- A special day at camp...
- A time I went to the fair (or other special event)...
- A shopping day I remember...
- A day that I was given an opportunity to use my talents...
- A science experiment I'll never forget...
- The day I learned how to dance...
- The worst day of my life...
- The most exciting day of my life...
- The time I got lost...
- A time I was helpful...
- A day that I was a cook...
- My favorite birthday...
- My most embarrassing moment...
- A special gift...
- A time I received a special award or recognition...
- My special day at the park or zoo...
- My first school field trip or one that I will always remember...
- The day I learned to swim or ride a bike (or some other important task)...
- Something I learned to do before I started school...
- The day I lost a tooth...
- The day I went to the doctor/dentist...
- A special day at the beach (or mountains)...
- A day I got into trouble...
- A special holiday I remember...
- A time I traveled to a special place...
- An event that made me angry/happy/proud...
- A time I was a good loser...
- A time that I was polite...
- A time that I was a friend...
- A time that I was curious...
- A time I cooperated with others...
- My favorite Saturday morning...
- A time that I was understanding with others...
- A time that I showed my parents that I loved them...
- The time someone played a trick on me...
- The day I showed good sportsmanship...